What is Environmentalism?
Environmentalism is a broad philosophy, ideology and social movement that aims to protect the environment. And improve the state of the environment, especially the health of people, animals, plants and non-living things. The Environmental activism focuses more on the nature-related aspects of environmental awareness and environmental ideology and politics, while environmental politics combines social ecology and environmental ideology. Ecology is used more in continental European languages, ecology more in English, but the words have some meaning.
It supports the protection, restoration and improvement of important elements such as soil or climate to protect, restore and improve the environment and can be called anti-pollution or preserving the diversity of plants and animals. Therefore, concepts such as land ethics, environmental ethics, biodiversity, ecology and the basophilic hypothesis prevail.
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History of Environmentalism
Environmental protection began in its most primitive form and practice through the traditions, customs and knowledge of the villages of the world. The Indus civilization practiced waste management and sanitation 5,000 years ago. Ancient peoples of China, Peru and India used crops and soil rotation to reduce soil erosion and preserve the soil. Even Greek philosophers like Plato and Hippocrates talked about environmental health and deforestation in ancient Greece.
In the United States there is a strong connection between the life of the Native Americans and the land and nature. From Alaska to Australia, traditional knowledge includes a deep understanding of the land they gathered and lived in, the fish they relied on, and the fire they hunted. The ancient practice of using fire to clear land resulted in extensive deforestation, increasing the number of pests and predators. Indigenous peoples around the world had a more holistic view of the environment.
What we know about the environment today is the “western environment,” which began as a response to human activities that depleted or replenished the Earth’s resources. We must recognize that the degradation of public lands on the planet has destroyed the environment and its use. The community rejected people who knew the place and respected the law of balance.
Environmentalism is often based on cultural heritage and use historical traditions that promote balance and respect for nature. It controls 11% of the planet’s surface, accounting for only 4-5% of the world’s population. For example, 80% of the earth’s biodiversity has been preserved (Robbins, 2018). Similarly, Indigenous and Colored peoples in the United States have initiated environmental justice because they live, work, and play near pollution (Miller & Skelton, 2016).
In 1972, the first global debate on environmental issues took place at the UN session in Stockholm, in which 114 countries took part. The United States In 2017, the United States announced its withdrawal from the Paris Agreement.
In the 1980s, oil giants Shell and Exxon did their own research into climate change. Scientists have concluded that the use, sale and consumption of fossil fuels such as oil and coal will lead to global warming and the crisis we know today. Unfortunately, these fossil fuel companies have hidden the science and have gone to great lengths to correct climate change predictions. They have decided to continue to profit from the sale and consumption of oil, the main cause of the current climate crisis (Franta, 2018). Fossil fuels emit large amounts of carbon dioxide into our atmosphere, along with other pollutants, and are used today in our cars, buildings, appliances, entertainment and lifestyles.
Liberal environmentalism rejects the idea that free market action can solve environmental problems and emphasizes the need for full government control to prevent environmental damage, respect human rights and ensure justice. Liberalism (moderate social democracy in the American sense) is the dominant factor in modern environmental thinking.
Avner D-Shalit is a strong supporter of the liberal milieu. The state promoted land use planning and the welfare state based on an expanded version of the liberal idea of the common good. He suggests that liberal principles of concern for the interests and happiness of others can be appropriately modified to include other species, all living things, entire ecosystems, and even all living things.
Pigovsky thought the tax was regressive and unfair. When “external costs” are imposed on producers, these costs are passed on to consumers and the poor are disproportionately taxed because they spend the majority of their income on energy and other taxed products. But it challenges the idea that “value” can be added to the price of a product.
This shows the difficulty and lack of identification of diseases and diseases that destroy human and animal life, not to mention the loss of species and destruction of the environment. He also warned that the cost-benefit analysis ignores the lives and experiences of future generations. Therefore, evaluation must be an ethical and political issue. A free market or a market with theoretically calculated external costs cannot determine an “objective” price.
De Chally rejects the idea that “property rights” serve the public interest in a free-market approach to further lawsuits by individuals who have been harmed by polluters. “Why people don’t take action about pollution in the Environment.” He was surprised. According to the citizens, environmental problems are moral and political problems that must be solved in the interest of society.
Perhaps the first environmentalists were the Bishnoi Hindus of Kejarli, who were killed by the Maharaja of Jodhpur in 1720 for trying to protect the forest that was cut down for construction.
Modern environmental rights began in the 18th century. After the yellow fever epidemic in Philadelphia, Benjamin Franklin demanded the abandonment of waste removal and tanning for clean air as a “common right” (even lands stolen from indigenous people). Later, the American artist George Catlin proposed to protect the homeland as a “natural right”.
Meanwhile, Jeremy Bentou wrote An Introduction to Ethics and Law in Britain, where he supported animal rights. Thomas Malthus wrote a famous essay in which he warned that overpopulation can harm the environment. Knowledge of global warming began 200 years ago, when Jean Baptiste Fourier calculated that the Earth’s atmosphere stores heat like a greenhouse.
Then, in 1835, Ralph Waldo Emerson wrote about nature, encouraging us to enjoy nature itself and signaling the end of human expansion into the wilderness. American botanist William Bartram and botanist James Audubon were committed to nature conservation. Henry David Thoreau wrote the environmental book Walden, which has inspired environmentalists ever since.
Importance of Environmentalism
Climate change is the biggest problem facing people today. The seriousness and gravity of the climate emergency is due to its severe impact on the lives of current and future generations. There will be an undeniable damage to the environment and the environment of our planet. The speed or speed of change happening in the world and on Earth is a major reason for concern (Lindsey, 2019).
Our call to action and need to reduce pollution and impact is greater than ever, especially among today’s millennials and Generation Z. made higher Opportunities to protect the environment. However, this is not enough. The growth of human consumption and population in the world has affected climate problems, which requires more environmental laws and changes in laws, food habits and general changes in people’s lives.
The problem is that the climate does not recognize political boundaries or discrimination based on class, race or nationality. However, the response of governments and society to climate change affects social and political relations and discrimination. The environment plays an important role in promoting equity and justice because people of color and people in poverty face environmental challenges and are undervalued.
European countries and developed countries such as the United States, Russia, China, Germany and most of Europe have produced the best air quality, but developing countries are paying the price for working hard to balance the economy and the environment. The science behind environmental issues may be limited, but the human connection to the environment is the most natural connection in our lives.
Environmental issues are the best way each of us can contribute to the fight against climate change. Western governments and developing countries, as well as large organizations, must take more responsibility and action to reduce the effects of climate change. However, this is a human problem and we can all do something about it. Although some have done more for the cause than others, we can all contribute to improving the environment.
As citizens, we can choose to reuse or recycle certain items and purchase items that use significant packaging. Shopping locally and cycling and taking public transport over cars always help reduce air pollution. We can reduce our consumption of meat and dairy, production is hard on the environment and we can generally reduce our consumption. We don’t have to give up what we want or what makes us happy; all you have to do is reduce, reuse and recycle to do your job (EPA, 2019).
Key Related Ideas
Climate change: Carbon dioxide and methane in the earth’s atmosphere are increasing rapidly, leading to extreme and unpredictable weather events around the world. Rising levels of these two gases also cause rapid warming of our atmosphere and surface, known as global warming. As a result of unnatural and man-made changes on our planet. Our ecosystems become unbalanced and unable to cope with the rate. And speed of change, leading to catastrophic events such as severe storms, floods, hurricanes and disasters. The Arctic and Antarctic Plates and the sixth mass extinction of all species on our planet, including humans (Aljazeera, 2019)
Eco-activism: a way to engage in social and/or political campaigns to stop environmental degradation and allow others disproportionately affected by environmental degradation to voice their concerns (WECF, 2018).
Environmental justice: Environmental justice is the equal treatment and meaningful participation of all people in the development, implementation and enforcement of Jai’s environmental laws and regulations, regardless of race, religion, national origin and gender quality.
Renewable energy sources are infinite resources such as wind and solar energy that are constantly replenished. Solar technology uses solar energy for heating, lighting, hot water, electricity and cooling. Wind energy technology lowers the cost of wind energy through the development of advanced wind turbines (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)
Sustainable Energy is a strategy in which communities seek economic development opportunities that contribute to the local environment and quality of life. Sustainable development should achieve through both locally and globally. Many environmental groups, governments and companies have started to apply the principles of sustainable development in their activities (Smart Communities Network).