Introduction of Viral Genome Sequencing
CD Genomics provides viral genome sequencing services under the Illumina and PacBio platforms. We can generate high quality, high data quality de novo assemblies from large viral genomes at a relatively low cost.
Viruses are the most abundant biological entities on Earth that significantly affect organisms by causing disease and altering their immune systems. Despite this proximity and influence, less than 0.01% of viruses are sequenced. Research into viral infections and the development of new therapies have now made great strides in etiopathogenetic.
Another widely used NGS platform: Illumina recommends a maximum length of 300-500 nucleotides per sequence analysis. Recently, Pac Bío has improved sequencing technology with real-time single-molecule sequencing. Here you will find incorrectly filled long reads that exceed the limits of NGS.
The CD genome platform has great potential for viral genome sequencing. Extensive viral sequences will provide reference genomes for predicting viral diversity, ecology, adaptation and evolution, as well as emerging viral infectious diseases.
Key Features and Advantages
- No reference string is required.
- The format and depth are appropriate for your project.
- A complete description of the viral genome
- Recognize and consider small differences.
- Construction of fully integrated genomes of large viral genomes
- This is a very cost-effective series.
- High data quality and fast transfer time
- Data Quality Control
- Genome Assembly
- Protein-coding gene prediction
- Protein Coding Gene Annotation
Viruses with DNA genomes (DNA viruses)
Replication in the nucleus of host cells (except Poxviridae which have their own DNA-dependent RNA polymerase).
Double-stranded DNA (dsDNA)
No reverse transcriptase (almost all viruses): Negative-sense viral DNA is transcribed into mRNA using host cell RNA polymerase → viral proteins and dsDNA progeny are produced.
with reverse transcriptase
Hepadnavirus (HBV only, reverse transcription virus)
Requires RNA-dependent DNA polymerase
(Acts like a reverse transcriptase)
Viral mRNA → viral protein synthesis → HBV RNA-dependent DNA polymerase then transcribes the viral RNA to form progeny DNA.
Viral Genome Evolution
Viral genomes are among the fastest-evolving organisms in biology due to their short replication time and release of large numbers of genes per replication cycle. Evolution occurs through several mechanisms, including random mutation, recombination, recombination, and gene amplification/reduction. Leads to parasites and defective interfering genomes
Viral Structure and Functions
- Viruses are a unique group of pathogens with a simple cell structure and a clear reproduction pattern.
- Despite their simple structure, but the main cause of disease.
- They do not have a cytoplasmic membrane, cytosol or functional organelles, but they can infect all types of cells, and many bacteria can also infect bacteria called bacteriophages.
- Viruses and bacteriophages themselves cannot act, so they attack other cells and use their metabolic machinery to produce more viral molecules, nucleic acids, and proteins, which are then assembled into new bacteria.
- Infections can occur both outside and inside the cell.
- In the extracellular state, the virus is called a virion and cannot reproduce.
- The virion consists of a protein coat called the capsid, which surrounds the nucleic acid core that contains the genetic material or the viral genome.
- The Nucleoplastid is formed by the combination of the Nucleic acid and Capsid.
- Some virions have a phospholipid membrane derived from the host cell, the envelope surrounding the nucleocapsid.
- Viruses that have an envelope are called enveloped viruses and include herpes and HIV, while viruses that do not have an envelope, such as poliovirus, are called non-enveloped viruses. or not.
- Once inside the cell, the virus enters the intracellular state where the capsid is removed and the virus becomes active.
- In this state, the virus contains only nucleic acids, which the host attaches to the viral particles that assemble the virions and terminate them.
- These viruses are surrounded by an outer layer of proteins, called the capsid, which protects the viral genome and aids in transport between host cells.
- Viruses can also vary in shape and size, depending on the shape of the capsid.
- There are three types of shapes: spiral, icosahedral and complex.
- First, helical bacteria have a capsid or a fat capsule with a central core made of proteins arranged in a circle, forming a disc-like shape.
- The disc sheets are stacked one after the other, forming a tube with a space in the middle for the nucleic acid.
- An example of a disease with a similar pattern is the tobacco mosaic virus, the best-studied example.
- We continue with icosahedral particles, which are made of equilateral triangles that are attached to each other in a circular shape to completely cover the elements.
- These viruses are released into the environment when the cell dies, breaks down, and lyses, releasing virions.